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The difference between lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery) and lead-acid battery

Lithium iron phosphate batteries (LFP battery) and lead-acid batteries are two common energy storage solutions. Here is a comparison of them in several key aspects:

1. Energy density

  • Lithium iron phosphate batteries (LFP battery): higher energy density, usually 90-160 Wh/kg.
  • Lead-acid batteries: lower energy density, usually 30-50 Wh/kg.

2. Service life

  • Lithium iron phosphate batteries (LFP battery): long cycle life, usually more than 2,000 charge and discharge cycles, and some high-quality batteries can even reach more than 4,000 times.
  • Lead-acid batteries: shorter cycle life, usually 300-500 charge and discharge cycles.

3. Charge and discharge efficiency

  • Lithium iron phosphate batteries (LFP battery): high charge and discharge efficiency, usually more than 90%.
  • Lead-acid batteries: lower charge and discharge efficiency, usually 70-80%.

4. Maintenance

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery): Low maintenance requirements, basically maintenance-free.
  • Lead-acid battery: Requires regular maintenance, such as replenishing electrolyte and cleaning terminals.

5. Weight and volume

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery): Lighter and smaller in size, more space-saving at the same capacity.
  • Lead-acid battery: Heavier and larger in size, taking up more space at the same capacity.

6. Environmental impact

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery): Good environmental performance, non-toxic materials, relatively simple disposal.
  • Lead-acid battery: Contains lead and acid, has a greater environmental impact, and special attention needs to be paid to disposal.

7. Safety

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery): High safety, not prone to thermal runaway and explosion.
  • Lead-acid battery: May explode or leak acid in the event of overcharge or short circuit.

8. Cost

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery): The initial cost is high, but the overall cost is relatively low due to its long life and low maintenance cost.
  • Lead-acid battery: The initial cost is low, but the life is short and the maintenance cost is high, and the overall cost is high.

9. Application scenarios

  • Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP battery): Suitable for scenarios that require high energy density, long life and high safety, such as home energy storage, electric vehicles, portable devices, etc.
  • Lead-acid battery: Suitable for cost-sensitive, space-unrestricted and low-weight scenarios, such as emergency power supplies, UPS systems, etc.

In summary, lithium iron phosphate batteries are superior to lead-acid batteries in terms of energy density, service life, charge and discharge efficiency, weight and volume, environmental impact and safety, but their initial cost is high. Lead-acid batteries have advantages in initial cost, but are inferior to lithium iron phosphate batteries in many other aspects.

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